Environmental pollution is one of the most horrible ecological crises the world is subjected and it is the greatest problem that is increasing in every passive years in Nigeria ,which has being causing grave economic challenge to the country and irreparable damage to the country environment. Environmental pollution is an undesirable change in the physical chemical and biological components of the earth or atmosphere to an extend that the normal environmental processes are adversely affected.
The environment ( Air, Soil and Water) were in the past pure , virgin, undisturbed, uncontaminated and basically most hospitable for living organisms but the situation is just the reverse today. This is largely due to innovation in science and technology leading to the contamination of the environment. Environmental pollution is as a result of urban industrial technological revolution and speedy exploitation of resources man, craze of progress in agriculture, industrialization , transportation and technological activities have created adverse effect on living organisms in the biosphere .Rapid industrialization has left in it wake polluted air , water, and soil, depleted wildlife and exhausted natural resources.
Therefore we must employ processes and activities to characterize and monitor the quality of our environment , for the benefit of mankind , healthy living and the safety of our environment. Environmental monitoring can be defined as the systematic sampling of air, water, soil, and biota in order to observe and study the environment, as well as to derive knowledge from this process (Artiola et al., 2004; Wiersma, 2004). Environmental monitoring can also be refer to as process and activity that need to take place to characterize and monitor the environment.
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